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Most of the bettors chose Pacquiao at a 6-1 ratio – six bets for Pacquiao, one for Mayweather..

Sports bettors started taking their picks as soon as the match between American boxer Mayweather and Filipino Pacquiao was announced.

Mayweather’s supporters placed their bets at a later time, with some of them saying they were still not sure about the undefeated boxer’s condition.

LAS VEGAS — Sports betting in Las Vegas reaches an all-time high as sports bettors take their pick between Manny Pacquiao and Floyd Mayweather Jr., who will face each other in what has been dubbed as the “Fight of the Century.”

Race and sports books are also expected to earn more than $100 million per night on the May 2 bout.

From 6 to 1, the odds are now at 9-5.

Meanwhile, some bettors opted for preposition betting, wherein they place their bets on the knockout by round.

A few weeks before the fight, odds were at -300 for Mayweather and +250 for Pacquiao. This meant one has to bet $300 for Mayweather to earn 100 dollars, while $100 bet for Pacquiao will earn $250.

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Despite having a higher return, this kind of betting is more difficult as one has to predict at what round the match will end.

“This will be the largest handle we’ve ever had on a boxing match. In the state of Nevada, it will surely be the biggest ticket transaction

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The addiction has negative effects on one’s physical and mental health and it proves to be detrimental to one’s social, personal, and professional life. Forget satisfaction or peace, it is not even refreshing in the real sense. Betting is a mentally taxing activity, and as one goes on risking more and more money, anxiety starts building.

? The addiction to gambling can leave one in bankruptcy. A study by the same university suggested that 73% of the individuals who are imprisoned are found to be problem gamblers.

? As gambling leads to increased criminal activities, in a way, gamblers add to the burden on prisons and the legal system.

Gambling = Thoughtless Expenditure + Waste of Time

You could be at gunpoint or holding the gun. The National Council of Problem Gambling (NCPG) describes this type of gambling behavior as problem gambling.

? Research has shown that gambling can lead to harmful behavior in people. They tend to stay away from their near ones, resulting in distrust between them and their loved ones.

? Substances of abuse are served at casinos and in pubs and clubs, thus increasing the likelihood of gamblers consuming them. The skill of a gambler lies in weighing the three parameters and making a decision about what amount should be staked and how much should be expected in return.

? Gambling can lead to criminal activities. On giving a serious consideration to the negative effects of gambling, we realize that it is best avoided.

? Similar to how an individual keeps consuming substances like drugs or alcohol to experience an altered mental state, he continues to gamble. It only leads to a thoughtless expenditure of money and valuables.

? An Austrian study said that around 1 in 5 suicidal patients had a gambling problem.

? According to the University of New York, in people with alcohol use disorders, the chances of developing an addiction to gambling are 23 times higher.

Mental and physical health problems, financial issues, and conflicts in the family are among the common negative effects of gambling. Over time, it becomes a habit, and eventually an obsession that can’t be overcome. When they lose the money they had risked, they further gamble to recover the lost amount and it becomes a vicious circle even they can’t escape from.

? Additionally, rehabilitation and public assistance systems are taxed.

? Addiction to gambling has been linked with substance abuse. The stress of risking huge amounts of money or the frustration after losing it can increase the tendency of abuse in gamblers. In spite of the losses incurred, they continue betting. The addiction robs a gambler of all the productive time and leads to loss of efficiency at work. ? According to a study by the George State University, 50% of the problem gamblers commit crime. It can drag you into crime, gambling isn’t fun.

? Studies show that children with a sibling or parent addicted to gambling, are more likely to take to substance abuse.

? Gambling is practiced as a means of recreation. To add to the so-called merry atmosphere, gamblers often smoke or drink while playing.

? A majority of those addicted to gambling have substance abuse disorders.

? Gambling has proven to be addictive. Card games, coin tossing, and dice-based games are some non-casino based forms of gambling. Due to lost mental peace, they may ill-treat their spouse and children. The addiction leads people to continue with gambling irrespective of whether they earn or lose in the deal. This proves to be detrimental to their social and family life. Some take to substance abuse to supplement the high they get from winning huge sums while gambling. Because of this, they land in worse situations and take the wrong decisions in life.

? Gambling at the cost of one’s job results in a decline in the quality of his professional life. Their mental state can even lead to suicidal tendencies.

? People who fall prey to gambling tend to remain away from their families and waste money on other bad practices. Sports betting and arbitrage betting are the other types. They engage in gambling activities at the cost of their time with family and friends. It soon becomes a habit that can’t be broken.

? According to a research by NCPG, 76 percent of problem gamblers are likely to have a major depressive disorder.

Gambling refers to the betting of money on an event with an uncertain outcome, with the intent of winning additional wealth. A recreational activity is supposed to be refreshing and relaxing, but something like gambling is contrary to the very purpose of recreation. Addiction to gambling, coupled with substance abuse can make the gamblers physically abusive towards their family. The addiction gets on to the gamblers to such an extent that they fail to think wisely before acting. Six to eight million people in America are estimated to have a gambling problem.

? Gamblers often exhibit mood swings and a strangely secretive behavior. The effect is similar to that of having a drug or a drink, which is why gambling changes one’s mental state and mood.

? Apart from absence at work and drop in efficiency, a common observation is that gamblers tend to steal money and engage in fraudulent behavior to recover from financial losses incurred when gambling, or to get more money to bet.

? The costs of treating compulsive gamblers are huge. According to the National Research Council, 10 to 17% of the children of problem gamblers have been abused and so have 25 to 50% of the partners of problems gamblers.

Initially, one looks at gambling as a way to run away from life’s problems, or from stress, anger, and loneliness. Their debt keeps building and it may reach an amount that exceeds their capacity to repay.

? Children of parents who are problem gamblers or gambling addicts tend to feel abandoned and angry, further increasing stress and leading to strained family relations.

? The stress from gambling may lead to health issues like ulcers, stomach problems, muscle pains, headaches, and problems with sleep.

? Problem gamblers and addicts tend to abuse their family members. The greed never ends and they keep betting more and more. In the following sections of this Buzzle article, we discuss the negative effects of gambling on the individual and society.

? Over time, the practice of gambling starts becoming a habit and begins to have damaging effects at psychological, physical, and social levels. It causes a decline in his/her work performance, thus hampering his career.

Games offered in casinos, table games like poker, Red Dog, and Blackjack, as also electronic games like Slot Machine and Video Poker are some of the common types of gambling. The two go hand in hand. Thus, gambling can have a grave economic impact which is difficult to reverse.

? They start borrowing money and take secret loans. Rehabilitating the gambling addicts needs money and time, and the process is not very easy. The decision to gamble money is based on three parameters namely; how much to bet, the predictability of the event, and the conditions agreed upon, between the gamblers. Thus, gambling practices cause a huge financial burden on the families of the affected and on the society at large.

Compulsive gambling leads to bankruptcy

? People continue gambling with the greed of winning money. Some go that way to forget the sorrow of losing big sums when gambling.

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If you want a tattoo they have a shop inside.

New York New York Hotel and Casino

The Gold Spike Hotel and Casino has

some lower limit tables such as $2.00 Blackjack. I wonder when

Britney plays blackjack and wants another card if she tells the

Blackjack dealer “Hit Me Baby One More Time.” After all of

Britney’s kids I think she was hit again.

7-11

The Palms Casino and Resort is where

the middle class come to see the rich and famous. Do not

attend the Slots-A-Fun Casino on a weekend or any other time the

place is busy. If it is

not a slow night then do not even bother to show up to the

Slots-A-Fun Casino.

The Palms Casino and Resort is a

favorite of Britney Spears when she visits Las Vegas.

Image Credit: (Flickr/davideferro.net) (Flickr/Chad Davis)

While visiting the Luxor Hotel and

Casino make sure you get tickets to the show starring Angelica

Bridges. Regardless of your budget you can find

somewhere fun and unique to gamble while visiting Las Vegas.

The 7-11 convenience stores in Las

Vegas are everywhere. If you do want to see the Strip

you are a very short bus ride away. The 7-11 stores are not considered a casino to

most people. You are right down by the

Fremont Light Show and all of the casinos and sites located in the

downtown area of historic Las Vegas. The appearance is drastically different,.

The Luxor Hotel and Casino has changed from an Egyptian theme to a

corporate owned casino filled with gimmicky adverting. There are always exceptions and some great deals can be

found for the Las Vegas Strip hotels and casinos during non peak

times.

Gold Spike Hotel and Casino

Palms Casino and Resort

Slots-A-Fun Casino

If you visit the Palms Casino and

Resort make sure your bring your camera so you can take a picture of

the Paparazzi who may be there outside snapping pictures of the rich

and famous when they arrive at the Palms Casino and Resort.

I am a huge fan of the downtown Vegas

properties but this strip property make my list. (readers or lookers?) The show is adult oriented

so don’t take Paul “Pee Wee” Reubens with you.

The New York New York Hotel and Casino

was considered a truly amazing architecture and styling casino when

it was first opened. I have

never been inside the Palms Casino and Resort except for when I see

this Vegas Hotel on television.. You can also walk if you are not lazy. It is modeled after the gr

eat pyramids of Egypt. The Luxor Hotel and

Casino of today appears much different then the magnificent building

that was originally there. When the Slots-A-Fun Casino is empty of locals and

tourists then it is a very fun place to gamble in Las Vegas. I did once when it was 108 degrees and the

soles on my shoes were soft from the hot asphalt and concrete

literally melting my shoe soles away.

There are many casinos in Las Vegas

Nevada. If the Aliens

ever come to play poker they will probably come to the Luxor Hotel

and Casino.

Luxor Hotel and Casino

At night time the Palms Casino and

Resort is an absolutely gorgeous building. The Palms Casino and Resort has been the site of many TV

shows. What other gaming property in Las Vegas can

offer you a Slurpee? The fact that I can play video poker with bad

odds and drink blue colored Slurpee’s all day makes the 7-11

convenience stores an awesome Las Vegas gaming property.

In 2007 they replace most of the

Egyptian themed items and decorations. The

parking garage at the New York New York Hotel and Casino is my

favorite ride. The Luxor Hotel and

Casino is really cool for two reasons. At least they

have not changed the sweet shape f the pyramid.

The Gold Spike Hotel and Casino is

located in my favorite part of Las Vegas. When you are speeding up to the

top layer it looks and feels like you are flying of the edge of the

building onto the roller coaster. The roller coaster is fun…to watch. On a Sunday when there are only a few cars in there

you can drive your car to the top. I love the

7-11 stores for gambling. It is by the Circus Circus Hotel and Casino.

Slots-A-Fun Casino has many low limit table games including $1.00

blackjack. The Gold Spike Hotel and Casino also has a

sports book inside called “Leroy’s Sports book”.

If you choose to stay at the Gold Spike

Hotel and Casino during you vacation to Las Vegas you will be well

rewarded with your choice of location. During peak nights the Slots-A-Fun

Casino is packed with people wanting to play low limit games. Many people now days consider the New York New

York Hotel and Casino to be slightly on the tacky side. It is a popular spot for

amateur photographers to snap a world class picture. $2.00 Blackjack is

only available occasionally. I disagree.

The New York New York Hotel and Casino is all of the fun of the real

New York but a lot cheaper. You can find $1.00 black jack or $1,000 black jack tables.

From the high rollers VIP areas in fancy Vegas Casinos to the smoky

keno rooms with ragged carpet. They usually have some video gaming machines. Downtown Las Vegas is much funner and generally cheaper then staying on the

Vegas Strip. I wish they would have kept

the Egyptian theme at the Luxor Hotel and Casino. The first is the shape of the

building. $3.00 Black Jack is the favorite game of

many people in Las Vegas. Angelica Bridges starred on Baywatch and is also a favorite

of Playboy readers. I assume the

inside of the Palms Casino and Resort is just as beautiful. If it is summertime and over 100 degrees I highly suggest you

do not walk the strip. The other

reason the Luxor Hotel and Casino is so cool is because of the huge

light beaming out from the top of the Luxor into space. Just because you may want to

visit an expensive Las Vegas Casino that does not mean you have to

play there.

The Slots-A-Fun Casino is located on

The Las Vegas Strip. The rich and famous

come to the Palms Casino and Resort to be seen by the middle class

tourists. Slots-A-Fun Casino is a fun place to gamble cheaply if you

go there during a slow time. Fremont Street. You may have seen the Palms Casino and Resort on

television.

Regardless of where you want to gamble

in Las Vegas you can always find something cool, tacky, common, rare,

expensive, cheap, or even dirt cheap

. Memory Elvin Lewis

Dr. Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership.  I truly appreciate it.

His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling.  Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs.  Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate. 

Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa. . It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away.  In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved.  Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected.  This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not).  Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.

And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history. 

The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants.  This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service.  Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press.  It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role. Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.

There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?).  Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ ["zero"] instead.

Author’s note

Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”. 

Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well.  Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.

Air Canada

By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.

Less Than Zero

Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people. 

Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses.  He was blond, voluble, and open.  Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls.  He took on whatever he felt like.  As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts.  [The quintessential version of "The Clone Look" would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen's lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.] 

Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America. 

Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research.  It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted.  Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS. 

The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within.  Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54′s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself. 

Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim.  As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.

He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time).  [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]

The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”.  They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American.  They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”.  More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.

Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. 1952-1953).

He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active.  His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr.  Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.

Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.  

For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust. 

The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”.  Certainly, they were paid less.  There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.

The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene.  The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.

Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation.  In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues.  Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected.  Further confirmation testing in 1989  proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. . Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture.  He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough. 

Gateway to the West

Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards.  Stewardesses, however, were very desirable.  They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man.  In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.

From a front-line perspective

There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry.  At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.

The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples.  In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive

The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version.  One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871.  HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922.  Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.

In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.

As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida.  It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history. 

The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning.  Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”)  for “the beginning”.  It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).

Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick.  He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”.  But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious.  He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him.  His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice.  His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.

He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.

The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men.  These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials.  As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male.  World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too. 

The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture.  Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island.  Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”. 

A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though.  Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests.  This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”.  It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly.  Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.

Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores..   The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen.  He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”.  He also had shortness of breath.  His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems).  This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.

This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.

This makes little sense. 

He started out as a hairdresser.  Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual.  He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job.  He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada.  This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters.  In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.

Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless.  At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).

Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment.  [Rubell later died of AIDS.]

This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject.  One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case.  Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America. 

AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. It was so unusual at the time . Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. Louis, Missouri.  His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George.  Rayford was described as slender.  His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness. 

Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio.  He came to the US in 1927.  He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan.  He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue.  Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case.  Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS?  “You bet . Louis. 

He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well.  In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen.  It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame).  The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort.  It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).

The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS.  That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.

Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did.  This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed. 

Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities.  His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.

The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old).  He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened.  His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically.  The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised.  He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ).  His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”

Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.

The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in.  Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.

The Road to Zero

One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America.  As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate.  As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount.  Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men. 

Dr. many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”

***

Dugas remained unrepentant.  He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually.  His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex.  Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.”  His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves.  They know what’s going on out there.  They’ve heard about this disease.”  The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer.  I’m going to die and so are you.” 

Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.

Update note:Dr. Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.

Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem.  And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.

As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active.  Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic.  His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body. 

“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”

Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953.  His life was on a collision course with history.  In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active.  [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown.  He may have been bisexual.] 

Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep). 

The End of Days was seemingly at hand.

False Positive

In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.

Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams.  It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse).  One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background).  He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him.  To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.

AIDS now had a face.

Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”.  Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors.  An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh).  [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.] 

Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54.  This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world.  Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there.  Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity.  No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54.  Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies. 

Mr. .

This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV. 

Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS).  In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died. 

The airline industry developed glamour.  The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless.  These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime.  Therefore, they must be promiscuous.  The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring.  Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses.  The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day).  Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.

Ground Zero

Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind.  As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID).  This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system.  It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims.  It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.

On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.

Omega Man

In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died.  In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive. 

In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants.  They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality.  “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.

Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St.  

AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans.  IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive. 

Gay men realized the danger.  Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent.  Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others.  They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men.  Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).

Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31.  His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.

Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966.  Other strains have been isolated as well.  As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much). 

In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease.  In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa.  He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea.  He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa.  In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections.  By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver. 

Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there.  She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill.  Her symptoms confounded her colleagues.  She died in December 1977.  Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive.  During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.

First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners.  After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed.  This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest.  When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer.  Maybe you’ll get it.”

But, it doesn’t end there. 

Good investigative work requires dogged determination.  Running an enigma to ground can take years. 

In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived.  Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities.  Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men.  They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco.  [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).

A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances.  He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect.  In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim.  Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa).  Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.

By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor.  A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay). 

Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary.  What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously.  It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966. 

Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977

The

parking garage at the New York New York Hotel and Casino is my

favorite ride. It is by the Circus Circus Hotel and Casino.

Slots-A-Fun Casino has many low limit table games including $1.00

blackjack. I wonder when

Britney plays blackjack and wants another card if she tells the

Blackjack dealer “Hit Me Baby One More Time.” After all of

Britney’s kids I think she was hit again.

Luxor Hotel and Casino

Image Credit: (Flickr/davideferro.net) (Flickr/Chad Davis)

The Slots-A-Fun Casino is located on

The Las Vegas Strip. If you do want to see the Strip

you are a very short bus ride away. There are always exceptions and some great deals can be

found for the Las Vegas Strip hotels and casinos during non peak

I am a huge fan of the downtown Vegas

properties but this strip property make my list. The Luxor Hotel and

Casino of today appears much different then the magnificent building

that was originally there. They usually have some video gaming machines. The roller coaster is fun…to watch. $2.00 Blackjack is

only available occasionally. You can also walk if you are not lazy. Slots-A-Fun Casino is a fun place to gamble cheaply if you

go there during a slow time. The first is the shape of the

building. The rich and famous

come to the Palms Casino and Resort to be seen by the middle class

tourists. I have

never been inside the Palms Casino and Resort except for when I see

this Vegas Hotel on television.

New York New York Hotel and Casino

The New York New York Hotel and Casino

was considered a truly amazing architecture and styling casino when

it was first opened. If it is

not a slow night then do not even bother to show up to the

Slots-A-Fun Casino.

Palms Casino and Resort

At night time the Palms Casino and

Resort is an absolutely gorgeous building. The Palms Casino and Resort has been the site of many TV

shows. The other

reason the Luxor Hotel and Casino is so cool is because of the huge

light beaming out from the top of the Luxor into space. Many people now days consider the New York New

York Hotel and Casino to be slightly on the tacky side. Just because you may want to

visit an expensive Las Vegas Casino that does not mean you have to

play there.

The Gold Spike Hotel and Casino has

some lower limit tables such as $2.00 Blackjack. $3.00 Black Jack is the favorite game of

many people in Las Vegas. If you want a tattoo they have a shop inside.

The Gold Spike Hotel and Casino is

located in my favorite part of Las Vegas. When the Slots-A-Fun Casino is empty of locals and

tourists then it is a very fun place to gamble in Las Vegas. Do not

attend the Slots-A-Fun Casino on a weekend or any other time the

place is busy. During peak nights the Slots-A-Fun

Casino is packed with people wanting to play low limit games. I did once when it was 108 degrees and the

soles on my shoes were soft from the hot asphalt and concrete

literally melting my shoe soles away.

While visiting the Luxor Hotel and

Casino make sure you get tickets to the show starring Angelica

Bridges. Downtown Las Vegas is much funner and generally cheaper then staying on the

Vegas Strip.

The 7-11 convenience stores in Las

Vegas are everywhere. The Luxor Hotel and

Casino is really cool for two reasons. You may have seen the Palms Casino and Resort on

television. I assume the

inside of the Palms Casino and Resort is just as beautiful. The 7-11 stores are not considered a casino to

most people. It is a popular spot for

amateur photographers to snap a world class picture. (readers or lookers?) The show is adult oriented

so don’t take Paul “Pee Wee” Reubens with you.

times.

Gold Spike Hotel and Casino

The Palms Casino and Resort is where

the middle class come to see the rich and famous. Fremont Street. You can find $1.00 black jack or $1,000 black jack tables.

From the high rollers VIP areas in fancy Vegas Casinos to the smoky

keno rooms with ragged carpet. Regardless of your budget you can find

somewhere fun and unique to gamble while visiting Las Vegas.

In 2007 they replace most of the

Egyptian themed items and decorations. Angelica Bridges starred on Baywatch and is also a favorite

of Playboy readers. I wish they would have kept

the Egyptian theme at the Luxor Hotel and Casino. At least they

have not changed the sweet shape f the pyramid.

If you visit the Palms Casino and

Resort make sure your bring your camera so you can take a picture of

the Paparazzi who may be there outside snapping pictures of the rich

and famous when they arrive at the Palms Casino and Resort.

7-11

The Palms Casino and Resort is a

favorite of Britney Spears when she visits Las Vegas. It is modeled after the gr

eat pyramids of Egypt. The appearance is drastically different,.

The Luxor Hotel and Casino has changed from an Egyptian theme to a

corporate owned casino filled with gimmicky adverting. You are right down by the

Fremont Light Show and all of the casinos and sites located in the

downtown area of historic Las Vegas. The Gold Spike Hotel and Casino also has a

sports book inside called “Leroy’s Sports book”.

Slots-A-Fun Casino

There are many casinos in Las Vegas

Nevada. When you are speeding up to the

top layer it looks and feels like you are flying of the edge of the

building onto the roller coaster. On a Sunday when there are only a few cars in there

you can drive your car to the top. I disagree.

The New York New York Hotel and Casino is all of the fun of the real

New York but a lot cheaper. If it is summertime and over 100 degrees I highly suggest you

do not walk the strip. If the Aliens

ever come to play poker they will probably come to the Luxor Hotel

and Casino.

Regardless of where you want to gamble

in Las Vegas you can always find something cool, tacky, common, rare,

expensive, cheap, or even dirt cheap. What other gaming property in Las Vegas can

offer you a Slurpee? The fact that I can play video poker with bad

odds and drink blue colored Slurpee’s all day makes the 7-11

convenience stores an awesome Las Vegas gaming property.. I love the

7-11 stores for gambling.

If you choose to stay at the Gold Spike

Hotel and Casino during you vacation to Las Vegas you will be well

rewarded with your choice of location

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Every $400 bet on Serena nets a $100 profit if she wins (plus the return of the $400 risked). Open tennis tournament, a reasonable money line would require Serena bettors to risk $400 to win $100 while a $100 bet on her opponent would win $360. A NFL future bet on a team to win the Super Bowl might be 20/1 in the preseason; but by midseason, their odds might decrease to 10/1 if they turn out to be legitimate championship contenders.

Proposition bets for non-team sports are not limited to “Betting to Win” an event and “Matchup Betting” but those are the primary ways to wager on them.

It is very important to note that not all the competitors in an event may be listed, so another betting option is on the “field” which includes all other competitors not listed. So be aware of all your wagering options and don’t miss out on the excitement non-team sports have to offer with prop betting!

Here’s how the money line would be listed: Serena Williams -400 / #102 Ranked Opponent +360.

Matchup Betting

Contributed by:

Before every major event in non-team sports like golf, tennis and auto racing, futures are set by oddsmakers. An artificial head-to-head matchup involves competitors in an event like a golf tournament or auto race who are indirectly competing against each other since in reality they are competing against everybody in the field, not just one other competitor. The two main ways of wagering on non-team sports are “Betting to Win” an event and “Matchup Betting” which pits an individual against another individual or a group of individuals. These are not fixed and are adjusted by sportsbooks several times leading up to the event and are sometimes released months before an event.

For example, if Serena Williams faced an overmatched opponent in the U.S. The same holds true for major team sports like NFL and college football, NBA and college basketball and MLB baseball. However, many sportsbooks also offer proposition bets (or props short) for gambling on non-team sports like golf, tennis, boxing and auto racing – including NASCAR – due to their growing popularity. These artificial matchups are also fake in the sense that bookmakers are the ones creating them – solely for betting purposes – and different books will often offer different matchups. Since golf and NASCAR both have pre-qualifying, not everybody makes the cut to the final day of competition, and these group matchups require all individuals to qualify in order to be eligible for action. The Imperial Palace Casino’s sportsbook is well-known for the enormous number of prop bets offered. “Matchup Betting” generally involves an individual going up against another individual in a head-to-head event, such as a tennis match, and the odds are determined using the money line.

What player will score the game’s first touchdown . For example, betting on the 2006 Masters golf tournament now might get you much better value on Tiger Woods, who may be 10/1 at this moment but dip to 6/1 closer to the event if he is on a roll. The odds on a “field” bet are typically comparable to a bet on the favorite in order to protect sportsbooks from taking a big hit if a major upset occurs. As you can see, there’s much more to betting than simply totals and sides, especially when it comes to gambling on non-team sports.

RJ Bell

©Pregame.com 2006

Website: http://www.Pregame.com

Betting sides and totals on major sports like baseball, basketball and football are the most common wagers available everywhere. If her opponent pulls off the upset, $100 bet on the underdog would profit $360 (plus the return of the $100 risked).

What team will win the coin toss

The main advantage of futures is that you can get appealing odds by betting far in advance of when the event takes place. For example, you can bet on:

An example with team sports would be NFL futures, where you often can get much higher odds on a team by betting before the season starts.

What will be the exact margin of victory

Furthermore, a tennis match would be considered a tournament-style head-to-head matchup since the competitors involved directly play against each other in the event.

“Betting to Win” an outcome event like The Masters is the most common way to wager on individuals competing for a particular non-team title.

Betting to Win

For non-team sports like golf, boxing, tennis and NASCAR, “Matchup Betting” offers an alternative to simply betting on the event’s winner

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In some casinos, this might be allowed; most of the prominent casinos in Las Vegas do not allow taking pictures inside the casino at all. .

Pictures are great stuffs that you can share with your friends and family. Find the perfect hotel casino and have an exciting travel to this beautiful city. That way, you can stay out of trouble. There are plenty of places where you can take pictures. Casinos want to protect their own interests as well as that of their regular players. When traveling to a foreign place, it’s natural for you to take pictures. If you’ve ever been to Vegas, you can take pictures of the different casinos in the strip from outside.

Have you ever been to one of the casinos at the Vegas strip? The hotel casinos there are amazing.

The rules in the hotel casinos vary so you need to inquire about taking pictures. The rooms of the hotels usually offer picturesque views of the city and this is an excellent way to capture special moments with family and friends. Hop from one casino to another and create memories. Since the hotels differ in terms of accommodation and amenities, it would be a wise decision to conduct some research first before you make any reservations. The hotels also have some great areas where you can take photos to make the travel memorable. Since you’re a guest, you should learn to respect the rules so that you can avoid trouble. You can also go inside the hotels to take pictures in some of their great spots. The casinos can cater to gamblers, romantic couples, and even the whole family. Besides, all you can find inside the casinos are poker tables, blackjack tables, roulette, slot machines, etc. It will all depend whether you’re traveling to Las Vegas alone, with kids, or with your loved one. Reserve your camera for more beautiful spots and places in Vegas. Perhaps you can take a picture in front of the hotel casino – capturing its name, so that everyone will know that you’ve been there. There are also a lot of people inside the casino and so it would be impossible to get a decent shot. What about casino pictures? Is it alright to take the pictures? Well, according to many travelers who have been to hotel casinos, it’s perfectly alright to take pictures in the hotel but when you’re inside the casino, it’s prohibited. Most casinos prohibit taking of pictures the table games like poker and blackjack for security reasons.

Take pictures now and have fun.

You can always take pictures outside the casino. Video cameras are also prohibited inside the casinos.

When traveling to Las Vegas, don’t forget to bring your cameras.

If you try to get the opinion of various individuals online, some would say that they were able to take pictures beside the slot machines and other areas within the casino. Even if that freaks you out, you can’t do anything about it because it’s their rules